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[英语] 【高中英语】“短文改错”答题技巧

常见错误类型
  Y7 U2 Z! A9 c1 }- N1. 谓语动词的错误是历年考试的重点和热点,常见谓语动词错误类型有:+ o8 L. L/ [& W. Y0 [
①一般现在时与一般过去时错用,如:+ h  f/ I/ h& S6 r& ~' U
They did not want me to do any work at home; they want me to devote all my time to my studies.(did 改为do)
* ]! `! w9 A% R② and 前后动词时态不一致,如:; V* |! y" x! Q7 I$ J
As we climbed the mountain, we fed monkeys, visiting temples and told stories. (visiting 改为 visited)7 {4 D6 n- ?6 ^4 a
③主谓不一致,如:) \9 Z/ @) }' D% M& u. l
One evening she told me that something happened when her parents was out. (was 改为were)
" n: h/ l2 m3 [( \1 w1 ?" \  ~& R④缺少动词,特别是be动词,如:
0 I5 h& }4 u9 SThere will an important game next month. (will后加be)4 p/ @- X( E) W0 ]* |. X
⑤第三人称单数形式错用
+ J% ]2 H2 [, @9 S  A⑥主动语态和被动语态错用
: b. o1 A# ^* [1 e! c' O2. 名词的常见错误:单复数名词错用,可数名词与不可数名词错用; F, U" X0 {0 _/ d" v9 Z: z9 I
I’ll get good marks in all my subject.(subject 改为subjects)
# A. }* d% c5 [) M5 pTheir word were a great encouragement to me.(word 改为words)
3 n: s  E- K2 ]% [+ WWithout enough knowledges, you can never teach well.(knowledges改为knowledge)
* e* N7 s1 v" R& o" }7 l& }2 b0 |3. 连词错误:连词包括关系代词、副词,并列连词and/ or/but等。关于连词,一般考查从句关(who/whom/whose/what/which/how/why/when/where/if/whether等。); D" h- s2 V  E# Q$ ^& s
I have a good friend who’s name is Liu Mei. (错用了who的所有格形式,改为whose)& p$ ^! b. I. u) _
I teach them, play with them, but watch them growing up. (此处应该是并列的关系而非转折,but改为 and)
- j& Y8 }$ J) t; ^6 \Clever as she is, but she works very hard.(as意为“尽管”,不能再跟but连用,所以去掉but)
9 ~9 w6 w5 Y, G- r; q8 J4. 冠词错误:
$ w( F3 Y$ v& h(1)误用a和an(根据单词的第一个音素来判定)
* N3 @( V2 R8 F7 _(2)误用a/an 和the(固定搭配,或泛指、特指;多冠词或少冠词)4 W! B+ k' ~5 [6 S/ R! {/ K4 |
We may be one family and live under a same roof. (a 改为the,the same 是固定搭配)
; J2 l' t0 M! {/ j9 sAs everyone knows, it’s famous mountain with all kindsof pants. (mountain是可数名词需用冠词,所以其前加 a )5 c, p8 D, ^( ^* \  S" I& {
I hope you have pleasant journey.(journey是可数名词,故have后加a)! S9 d) c  Q, r0 U
5. 形容词和副词错误:
( j! B# Z8 ]3 }' U6 ?( m(1)系动词后用形容词(be/am/is/are/was/were/become/go/感官性动词 smell /feel)7 Z: r* f+ K+ j5 f2 K
(2)词性的误用(形容词修饰名词;副词修饰动词、形容词)
2 N; \& H4 K( P* E; P: w. tI’m sure we’ll have a wonderfully time together. (time是名词所以要用形容词wonderful修饰)
8 F0 ?$ D7 {$ C! h) Y! GMy pronunciation was terribly.(was后用形容词,terribly改为terrible.)
' Q3 s# g  T# m- F! Q9 r/ p- V6. 代词错误:9 g& o& p7 a0 b( g; c2 g0 k
(1)代词的主格和宾格(I / me; he/him; she/ her; we/ us they/ them )错误
+ B. M8 y* s' Y' |* A* l! u(2)反身代词(myself/yourself/himself/herself/themselves/ourselves)使用错误
" Q4 g! _  D0 D* e(3)代词的单数和复数使用错误
, n* I; Q/ `7 c3 f" a3 d(4)代词指代错误- V6 n8 g$ t5 M. ]2 H
(5)多代词或少代词
# E4 ], u. x- X6 q# JSoon I began to enjoy talking to myself on paper as I was learning to express me in simple English. (me 改为 myself )
' x+ ~5 ?; Z0 }1 E7 AOne day I wrote a little story and showed to my teacher. (to前加it)7 D- [4 T* M# k( f& h  ]) P6 C  }
If any one of us had any difficulty in our life and study, the other would help him out. (other后加s)
8 Z0 b; H, q" P' C( hWhat’s more, you have to be friends with your pupils and take good care of him. (him改为them)
4 [  d& j% m; o7. 非谓语动词的常见错误:$ P1 z+ ~; _% b
(1)不定式、动名词作主语、宾语时$ @5 d; ?# z0 L; `2 R
(2)and 连接的不定式或动名词前后不一致(尤其距离较远时)* J. y% u2 U8 o7 R! [1 Q5 `
(3)介词后用动名词形式作宾语;某些动词后要求接动名词或不定式
6 b- ?: _8 a/ X1 v; r* LSoon I began to enjoy talk to myself on paper. (enjoy 后需接动名词,talk改为talking)
* t9 p9 H" ?1 U7 eBut his parents think go to college is more important than playing sports. (go作主语,应改为 going )$ W, ?* N- }, E# ^0 ]7 g6 K# U+ R
Children may not develop the habit of read and the ability to enjoy themselves. (介词后用动名词形式作宾语,read改为reading)
! e& p4 Y( m5 TI particularly enjoyed driving through the countryside with you and saw the changing colors of the leaves on the trees. (and 连接的不定式或动名词前后不一致,故saw改为seeing)
; P+ w- K' K7 K) H, X% ?1 L8. 介词错误:3 k2 ^' J3 C1 b
(1)词组中的介词误用1 i! ]$ v+ V2 z- D
(2)介词意思理解偏差
1 @" A& D) m; v" \% N, Q* Z- n(3)介词的多用或少用
, H* T* e  b# o! ?' aThere are too many people among my family. (among 改为in ,in my family 为固定搭配)5 x! p0 a8 n- q+ q% K& \0 N
I was so tired that I fell asleep at the moment my head touched the pillow. (去掉 at, the moment 引导从句)5 ~5 e# B4 ?) O. D/ _" R
解题思路
! X8 K) p$ @$ v$ W' V7 O+ u1. 看句中各部分的结构是否完整,特别是每个句子要有动词
3 \+ f# U; d$ |: j+ ?" V, v2. 看谓语动词的时态、语态是否正确/ T5 F/ Z( \; x! V7 G
3. 看非谓语动词的用法是否正确9 U4 O* G/ s5 ^" J; d
4. 看名词的单、复数,格的使用是否正确
0 B# _% i. f4 V3 h' @" e5. 看定冠词和不定冠词是否正确
4 q7 K0 u) V8 P8 h5 N6. 看代词的格和性的使用是否正确, `+ U# k2 q) [3 f* [% p
7. 看定语从句中关系代词、副词是否准确
4 R& d5 `$ C/ m* ]8. 看并列句中的并列连词、主从复合句中的从属连词用得是否得当
% y( w8 x+ ^; g2 J5 \' R- k解题四原则, s  W9 v. v  Y6 m$ k
1. 改动以最少为原则9 O" {) J; {1 L" l
2. 虚词以添加或删除为原则% P. P5 {! l' J, J
3. 实词以改变词形为原则
6 U& f& I2 H5 W  I6 [; G$ l4. 以保持句子原意为原则4 ~, q& z5 ?. l+ |  K
解题步骤" f* |6 h! Z$ X9 X
1. 通读全文,掌握大意: {/ r/ Z7 D/ X+ ]. H
2. 整句分析,逐行推敲% E4 P/ M3 p# ~, `( ~( o
3. 反复通读,复查验证
+ |7 K: C7 q4 E! S6 `$ f# T2 f解题注意要点和能力培养7 i3 E0 h8 [/ Z0 w
1. 核对错项时,若的确有一时难以改出的地方,可以参考所改动项是否基本符合“1:1:8”的比例。即多词1个,缺词1个,错词8个。
3 B& r  o6 ^: i/ `5 o7 @7 j2. 核对改正的语法项目是否有重复。因为短文改错往往覆盖面广,一般不会出现重复考查某个语法点的现象。
2 C  v+ d0 g! i$ \' w# w# {" n* E3. 核对答题符号是否规范,位置是否准确,看看有无遗漏符号,忽略字母大小写和拼写等问题。

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