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[学习方法] 10分钟告诉你,如何学习英语语法最高效!

牛津老师的建议; |9 L: ^* A) h+ V$ F) V8 g
——中英文对照
/ _9 m" [4 `% l+ K; \What do you think of when you hear the word 'grammar'? Does it make you think of complicated textbooks, difficult exercises and boring lessons?
$ D* i0 i  Z' A当你听到“语法”这个词时,你会怎么想?它会让你想到复杂的课本、困难的练习和枯燥的课程吗?0 M; h, [+ s4 }* ~+ [) r+ r8 T
For many English learners, the answer is 'yes'.
0 a* g0 s# _" F( R. I# e# _2 h对许多英语学习者来说,答案是“是”。8 }6 v0 Y: v, \9 A" O; o; K
Some English learners even tell me "I don't need grammar," or "I don't want to study grammar."
% P  B  C# }$ T: w一些英语学习者甚至告诉我“我不需要语法”,或者“我不想学语法”。
; D) m  L$ O9 i9 _9 C/ e( dIn this lesson, you're going to see first of all what grammar really is and why you need it. Then, I'll share some advice to make it easier for you to learn and use English grammar.. I9 D2 ?/ W  W' |% L# E2 `3 c
在这节课中,你将首先看到真正的语法是什么,以及你为什么需要它。然后,我将分享一些建议,让你更容易地学习和使用英语语法。$ f1 N- R  H% f' v$ T* s1 \

+ v5 F: r; `% h; w3 v% MWhat is grammar, and why do you need it?
" l  e( l  Q) b# Z2 }9 Y( j什么是语法,你为什么需要它?) p+ h* Y5 e% z" N8 X
Grammar is how you organise words into a sentence. Every time you put two or more words together, you are using grammar.
/ x/ I% n! z, J  K+ Y) {语法就是你如何把单词组织成一个句子。每次你把两个或两个以上的单词加在一起,你就在使用语法。& k# |) U4 a6 C: V; p( \+ _. B* @
Every time you listen to someone speak, your brain uses grammar to understand the meaning.8 G( i& A) v% c* D1 }1 f
每次你听别人说话,你的大脑就会用语法来理解这个意思。8 U1 I' n6 `- H& o* v5 k
From these examples, I hope you can see that grammar is not something abstract or complicated.
5 k9 H8 T  m/ b; N5 _从这些示例中,我希望你可以看到语法不是抽象的或复杂的。4 Q/ @1 v( s* y) J* g/ w
We all use grammar, all day, every day, every time we speak to someone. There's no way to learn a language without thinking about grammar.5 m2 @8 V1 V5 l/ V; l2 m- V
我们都在使用语法,整天,每天,每次我们和人进行交流。不考虑语法就不可能学好一门语言。
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Learning grammar: form vs. Function
: [) |6 }+ K. W- ]; R' N* `& B& X学习语法: 形式与功能) S! N2 x3 A) t
To use a grammar point (for example, the present simple verb tense), what do you need to know? In general, to use any grammar correctly, you need to know two things:
/ @  A9 N$ }( H- Q要运用语法点(例如,一般现在时动词时态),你需要知道什么?一般来说,要正确地使用任何语法,你需要知道两件事:
2 S: X8 q0 d) F6 X# n& a• The form: how to use the words in a sentence; F( q2 T1 E' q% ~- M$ T2 h
• The function: what meaning(s) the grammar expresses2 P1 ~& ?& F, g, Z  [0 p# u6 X
形式:如何在句子中使用这些词?
" [1 F/ T+ a3 u. o作用:这个(些)语法想表达什么?
) h8 U, b2 |4 v5 n3 tFor example, to form the present simple, you need to know several things:
# \; y3 ?3 [. O1 m) y例如,要想形成一般现在时,你需要知道以下几点:
3 P5 m4 o+ _/ R, e4 B7 _( x$ C• How to make positive sentences for different persons (I, you, he, we, etc.)
" g1 N5 X! U9 o6 L" p. G• When to add 's' or 'es' to the verb6 W- I3 X1 E2 y- N% q, d: Y* H! R
• How to make negative sentences
  O) d) t* P* X* V" F: B% ]• How to make questions
& ?. ~* y6 c  J/ z0 q①如何为不同的人(我,你,他,我们等)造肯定句?
  P2 O5 @& M+ B* C②当把's'或'es'添加到动词时;
0 A1 G5 [3 z) H! @4 s/ C7 h" O1 g9 c③如何造否定句;6 i% x" w& _: X9 {- h7 P
④如何提出问题。4 x+ j9 ~; ^# B0 s2 ^& c* _
However, forming the grammar doesn't tell you how to use it.
4 m2 R8 k6 b, ^+ {- h' B然而,形成语法并不能告诉你如何使用它。
( G! Z: p% v# w+ wYou also need to think about the function of a grammar point: what meanings can it express? The present simple can be used to express many different meanings, including regular actions, facts, or future events on a timetable.
) m' e6 \. J; O" {4 k你还需要考虑一个语法点的功能:它能表达什么意思?一般现在时可以用来表达许多不同的意思,包括定期的行动,事实,或者在时间表上的未来事件。
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$ v" ^& S. m6 E4 P. FLearning grammar: theory vs. Practice
7 g+ Y) ~6 m3 L1 @! k$ k- i; |学习语法: 理论与实践8 \2 N7 X1 p3 R7 k) {2 ^
When studying grammar, you also need a balance between theory and practice. You need to understand the rules, but you also need to spend time practising them and using them.
- l' m" x0 c2 U( ?' p6 w/ O3 Z在学习语法时,你也需要在理论和实践之间找到平衡。需要了解规则,但是也需要花费时间来练习和使用它们。
9 v5 N, S) H6 S! Y$ j  q& wFor example, studying rules, reading about grammar, or doing simple exercises are theoretical.
2 u5 f* @) n4 e/ T  `例如,学习规则、阅读语法或做简单的练习都是理论上的。
; X3 R, m' W0 [. c9 KMaking your own sentences using a grammar point, doing more complicated exercises, or using a grammar point in a conversation or written English are practical.5 }% U% T6 z7 }  h! u; x  T) R2 q1 E
用语法点来做自己的句子,做更复杂的练习,或者在谈话或书面英语中使用语法点是很实际的。* f* }' z9 b- m& @% y
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Learning grammar: the full picture
* C, H0 @; c$ Y学习语法:整体画面  x. a- z! H6 u9 q0 @
Now we can see the full picture: you need to understand the form and the function of a grammar point in theory, and you also need to practise both, by doing exercises, making your own sentences, speaking and so on.
) n2 I2 N3 C, s2 f% ~) g0 l* X现在我们可以看到整体的画面:你需要理解语法点的形式和功能,你也需要训练,通过做练习、自己造句、说话等等。/ O& I+ ]- |0 `
This might seem simple, but the reason why many English learners find grammar difficult is that they focus too much on one area, and not enough on others.
* a2 ^) ]! e9 n7 o5 e+ c这看起来似乎很简单,但许多英语学习者发现语法困难的原因是他们过于关注某一领域,而忽视了其他方面。
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# M( U( q/ b# B% s0 V% ?Practical advice& h" A0 |$ Y2 u, j, J
实用的建议' |; _" F2 S6 _- i) ]
Finally, let's look at some simple, practical suggestions you can use when studying grammar:
1 M5 I/ z2 \" q* o+ r+ ]最后,让我们来看看一些简单实用的建议,你可以在学习语法时使用。
& c% @0 C; ~' M0 T* f% v8 S2 I2 f• Always try to find real-life examples of what you are studying. Don't just read notes in a grammar book—the practical side of grammar is very important.) C0 }/ r0 }$ A. J- |
总是试着找到你正在学习的真实的例子。不要只是在语法书里读注释,语法的实际作用是非常重要的。9 `2 a5 m3 Q1 a8 n' J
• Remember: understanding a grammar point and being able to use it are separate things. Just because you understand some grammar rules and can do some simple exercises, this doesn't mean you 'know' the grammar point.) Z, j$ X. j* v3 {* {  g
记住:理解一个语法点并且能够使用它是两码事。仅仅因为你理解了一些语法规则并且可以做一些简单的练习,这并不意味着你就知道了语法点。8 i9 w* [% k2 o  z( D* q% V8 P
• Try to make your grammar study as practical as possible. Writing your own sentence is better than reading a sentence which someone else wrote. Using grammar in conversation is better than doing an exercise in a textbook, and so on.
  U, {7 U+ D) ^1 |' x- j, k5 o- i尽量使你的语法学习尽可能的实用。写自己的句子比读别人写的句子要好。在交谈中使用语法比在教科书中做练习要好,诸如此类。
4 |5 l  s. h) v0 ]! I' }' L• If you have difficulties with a grammar point, think about your mistakes. Are you making mistakes with the form, with the function, or with both? This can help you to study more effectively and correct your mistakes.4 Z' V# \4 H2 c0 L2 `: O
如果你在语法知识点学习上有困难,那就想想自己的错误。你是在形式或者作用上犯错,还是两者都犯了错误?这可以帮助你更有效地学习和纠正你的错误。
7 C0 M4 R$ T% h- h  u• When you study grammar, don't stop thinking about it when you close the textbook or leave the classroom. You don't learn grammar so that you can do exercises in a book, do you?1 U. K; s0 P, c: i* u' m
当你学习语法的时候,当你合上教科书或者离开教室时,不要停止思考。' V. F) O) c5 q4 Q# v
你认为只需在作业中练习,不必在课余时学习语法,是吗?6 s5 j2 u4 C+ [- n
I hope not-you should learn grammar so that you can use it in real life. That means you also need to think about it in real life, when you're speaking or writing in English.
7 K+ {0 d! h3 _- W* {8 z; x; P( I希望你千万别这样,我的意思是,你不仅需要在在说或用英语写作时练习语法,更需要在现实生活中思考语法的使用。

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