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[英语] 【高中英语】“短文改错”答题技巧

常见错误类型& }" x" u' }  F+ @- _  u7 x
1. 谓语动词的错误是历年考试的重点和热点,常见谓语动词错误类型有:
4 M3 w  B6 P2 P8 }4 U( H' h①一般现在时与一般过去时错用,如:
- Z7 t- z5 \- e$ Z% b- vThey did not want me to do any work at home; they want me to devote all my time to my studies.(did 改为do)
- o  d8 i: l. Z6 U$ u, O② and 前后动词时态不一致,如:& s, c, x6 d! o+ U) r$ J- n$ g5 |
As we climbed the mountain, we fed monkeys, visiting temples and told stories. (visiting 改为 visited)* z& L3 f7 L" |* [8 }
③主谓不一致,如:4 t- D' K3 }9 W$ K! N, U
One evening she told me that something happened when her parents was out. (was 改为were)
, q# P# D, M+ _: t" O* J* }2 ?④缺少动词,特别是be动词,如:  k3 D) n1 Q2 I$ U7 ~$ `: @
There will an important game next month. (will后加be)
1 U0 u8 j3 U! k⑤第三人称单数形式错用+ T2 u7 ^/ v, J4 V
⑥主动语态和被动语态错用
* S, {, \- k, ~- S# H8 A2. 名词的常见错误:单复数名词错用,可数名词与不可数名词错用% |9 L6 G2 A" D6 H! ]3 g6 L7 r7 p
I’ll get good marks in all my subject.(subject 改为subjects)" o" T: M& u0 g! O" X( s4 L3 O
Their word were a great encouragement to me.(word 改为words)' q  M: D" C8 m& L% L
Without enough knowledges, you can never teach well.(knowledges改为knowledge)) o; o2 J5 L" H+ P
3. 连词错误:连词包括关系代词、副词,并列连词and/ or/but等。关于连词,一般考查从句关(who/whom/whose/what/which/how/why/when/where/if/whether等。)
9 n8 D5 B0 Y/ t) K' }: k1 g' QI have a good friend who’s name is Liu Mei. (错用了who的所有格形式,改为whose)7 z* g) u" {# Z8 f
I teach them, play with them, but watch them growing up. (此处应该是并列的关系而非转折,but改为 and)* D" e1 E6 T& `+ o  N$ R1 v
Clever as she is, but she works very hard.(as意为“尽管”,不能再跟but连用,所以去掉but)8 B: Y1 {. I. }  ^% F1 f& E5 |1 K
4. 冠词错误:
+ S4 t8 u) H7 i( i( d7 d(1)误用a和an(根据单词的第一个音素来判定)
1 O( J4 e' r+ v% t(2)误用a/an 和the(固定搭配,或泛指、特指;多冠词或少冠词)3 }  _  h& ~8 _6 O7 _
We may be one family and live under a same roof. (a 改为the,the same 是固定搭配)
2 S9 U. }% p  g6 YAs everyone knows, it’s famous mountain with all kindsof pants. (mountain是可数名词需用冠词,所以其前加 a )# Q7 k: y; ^6 g) u, s
I hope you have pleasant journey.(journey是可数名词,故have后加a)+ L7 \8 M. e% D% o' T5 `( ~( _: V9 m
5. 形容词和副词错误:& u: Y- U! [6 f0 r" @
(1)系动词后用形容词(be/am/is/are/was/were/become/go/感官性动词 smell /feel)
6 k2 B5 s* d% X* T; d% t8 b(2)词性的误用(形容词修饰名词;副词修饰动词、形容词)
5 Z# f8 k& U6 T' P# nI’m sure we’ll have a wonderfully time together. (time是名词所以要用形容词wonderful修饰)) y; V( e6 e# l/ O2 |
My pronunciation was terribly.(was后用形容词,terribly改为terrible.)
0 j3 W& r. M1 L0 ~. `+ u6. 代词错误:
2 f, g2 L5 `  T/ L" u9 A- B9 y(1)代词的主格和宾格(I / me; he/him; she/ her; we/ us they/ them )错误' H2 ]. g  A" q1 }9 D
(2)反身代词(myself/yourself/himself/herself/themselves/ourselves)使用错误& B$ I9 u3 l( w' D8 e
(3)代词的单数和复数使用错误
: c  B* E! z# z' ]/ q$ ]& s- `(4)代词指代错误! d# C& @) q  ^( l- i# c* m6 m
(5)多代词或少代词
, D; y% `/ L5 CSoon I began to enjoy talking to myself on paper as I was learning to express me in simple English. (me 改为 myself )6 v6 q  B5 S+ T$ T
One day I wrote a little story and showed to my teacher. (to前加it)
# x% E2 B/ t; \If any one of us had any difficulty in our life and study, the other would help him out. (other后加s)- c, {& |2 d" d8 K" o1 R
What’s more, you have to be friends with your pupils and take good care of him. (him改为them)) ~: N3 e4 G: s" [
7. 非谓语动词的常见错误:8 L3 ]1 f9 L/ k5 ?
(1)不定式、动名词作主语、宾语时4 |! `. N4 \  D+ E2 p
(2)and 连接的不定式或动名词前后不一致(尤其距离较远时)
) s' `* R, @5 j2 v, ^/ r" U/ M(3)介词后用动名词形式作宾语;某些动词后要求接动名词或不定式
2 |8 Y- t! E" c+ w* v8 |Soon I began to enjoy talk to myself on paper. (enjoy 后需接动名词,talk改为talking)- @( Y4 p  M$ D/ U7 f# {
But his parents think go to college is more important than playing sports. (go作主语,应改为 going )& R, V: h* {( E' }) L
Children may not develop the habit of read and the ability to enjoy themselves. (介词后用动名词形式作宾语,read改为reading)
/ X* p* M+ ]' O, YI particularly enjoyed driving through the countryside with you and saw the changing colors of the leaves on the trees. (and 连接的不定式或动名词前后不一致,故saw改为seeing)4 e8 I( y& k5 v& g, _
8. 介词错误:
, c: [& j: U% u2 ]" {  z(1)词组中的介词误用/ \$ D  a6 F4 ~; \  _( Y
(2)介词意思理解偏差' C1 N6 C7 B! c, f
(3)介词的多用或少用
/ y  Z. n3 D; C! O- BThere are too many people among my family. (among 改为in ,in my family 为固定搭配)0 p* t. j, ^  m* Q5 v5 O6 H4 b
I was so tired that I fell asleep at the moment my head touched the pillow. (去掉 at, the moment 引导从句)
* @& Z, {" ^0 E. {0 ~5 U$ P解题思路! v4 T' y3 K' a7 ^6 p* W5 U+ F$ s
1. 看句中各部分的结构是否完整,特别是每个句子要有动词3 }0 r& h; P; C! [; f( }
2. 看谓语动词的时态、语态是否正确3 h, l, Y7 i0 k+ L& i6 Q' F: Z
3. 看非谓语动词的用法是否正确
. G8 |0 z9 s  q& y; t; D9 E" C6 {4. 看名词的单、复数,格的使用是否正确1 M0 l6 [9 ^: D) G, `! |
5. 看定冠词和不定冠词是否正确/ a4 f7 i1 G- Z9 g
6. 看代词的格和性的使用是否正确
! e4 ^( f% W9 [1 ?7. 看定语从句中关系代词、副词是否准确# N0 x$ [8 b* P  O- \& b2 W) [4 E
8. 看并列句中的并列连词、主从复合句中的从属连词用得是否得当
! d! s# T9 q# s7 j) Y解题四原则" O  K4 K2 d$ Q' t+ K
1. 改动以最少为原则$ T5 M: t) \3 v2 C! f& y
2. 虚词以添加或删除为原则5 O. @3 r  h* E
3. 实词以改变词形为原则+ o4 k' {$ n' s0 U
4. 以保持句子原意为原则
4 n& d4 [( H" s7 d+ _解题步骤
( p' L$ E5 h7 ^1 |7 {/ i1. 通读全文,掌握大意
1 m7 {: }  b1 V3 c) @8 W2. 整句分析,逐行推敲' {3 m  U0 Q) Q
3. 反复通读,复查验证7 u8 s- |' L* r& B, C
解题注意要点和能力培养& J5 s  J% b6 W: s( D1 ~/ H
1. 核对错项时,若的确有一时难以改出的地方,可以参考所改动项是否基本符合“1:1:8”的比例。即多词1个,缺词1个,错词8个。) m, D, d4 Q# ?1 e0 C* Z3 Z; C$ q5 N
2. 核对改正的语法项目是否有重复。因为短文改错往往覆盖面广,一般不会出现重复考查某个语法点的现象。
$ R1 U$ I( z! V! l8 d; {- ^" V1 ~3. 核对答题符号是否规范,位置是否准确,看看有无遗漏符号,忽略字母大小写和拼写等问题。

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